Mother & Child

How can I make the crib safe?

Choose a crib with bars no farther apart than 2 and 3/8 inch (6 cm.) If the space between the bars is too wide, your baby could slip through and strangle.

Use ruler to check the width of space between bars. Wrap a cloth between the bars if they are too far apart.

The crib should not have corner posts that stick out of the crib. Unscrew the corner.

The mattress should fit snugly against the sides of the crib.They should fit more than 2 fingers between the mattress and crib side. Place rolled towels between the mattress and the crib if the mattress is too small.

When your baby can push, remove bumpers, pillows and crib toys. Your baby can step on these things to climb out of the crib and fall.

What else I can do to keep the bedroom safe?

Remove any cords that could wrap around your baby's neck. Keep the crib away from electric cords, curtains and drapery cords, or tie the cords so they are less than 6 inches long (15 cm.)Keep them beyond the reach of your child. Mobiles and toys that hang from the crib should be kept well out of reach.Remove strings on crib toys and pacifiers.

How I can make the kitchen safe?

Turn the pot handles toward the back of the stove. Use the burners on the back of the stove for cooking.

Keep food and hot drinks out of reach, far from the edge of a counter or table. Keep knives and other sharp objects out of reach or in drawers or cabinets locked or "childproof." Wrap the cords of electrical appliances and keep them out of reach.

How I can keep medicines and poisons out of reach?

Keep medicines, vitamins, cleaning products and other poisons in locked cabinets. Children can not know what is difference between medicine and candy.

If your child has swallowed something, call a poison control center immediately. Keep that phone number near your telephone. Syrup of ipecac can be used to make the child vomit the poison, but should only be used if the poison control center recommends it.

How I can make bath time safe?

Because children can drown in very little water, you should always stay with your child when he or she is in the tub. NEVER leave your child alone or with an older child in the bathroom or tub, even for a minute. If you have to answer the phone or doorbell, take your child with you.

Always test the water with your hand before putting your child in the tub. Young children have soft skin and burn easily if the water in the sink or bathtub is too hot.

Set your water heater to 120 º F (49 º C) or less. To check the temperature of the hot water from the faucet, the water flow about a thermometer meat or candy for 3 minutes.

Keep electrical appliances like hair dryers away from water and unplugged when you are not using them. They can cause an electric shock if they fall into the sink or bathtub while plugged.

How I can be sure toys are safe?

Parts of toys for children under 3 years of age should not be smaller than 1 and 1/4 inch (3.13 cm) in diameter and 2 and 1/4 inch (5.63 cm.) Long . Any part smaller than this can cause your child to choke.

Check the label to make sure a toy is safe for your child's age. Keep toys for older children away from babies and children toddlers.

What about the plants?

Plants should be placed beyond the reach of your child. Some plants are poisonous. Call your poison control center to find out if your plants are poisonous.

Are the stairs dangerous?

They can be. Use gates for children beginning to walk, in the top and the bottom of the stairs. Gates with big spaces between the slats should not be used because children can get trapped between these spaces.

What about the windows?

Keep children away from windows to prevent falls. Screens are made to keep bugs out, not to keep children inside. Use safety plugs windows to prevent children from falling. Keep chairs and other furniture away from windows so children can not climb. If possible, open windows above, not below.






Other safety tips



  • Keep plastic bags and deflated or burst balloons away from young children.
  • Use plastic to cover electric outlets are not using.
  • Keep alcohol and cigarettes out of reach.
  • Keep guns and other firearms out of the house. If guns are in the house, unload them, put them in a locked and keep keys out of reach of children.Store the gun in a separate place of bullets.
  • When placing your baby on anything above the ground, like a changing table, always stand close with your hand on your baby.
  • Lock matches and lighters in a cabinet that is higher than your shoulders.

What is diaper rash?

Diaper rash is a redness and a rash in the area of ​​the buttocks or genitals of a baby. Diaper rash can be caused by wet diapers are not changed quickly enough. Normally, diaper rash can be treated with ease and at home.

What can a diaper rash cause?

Usually diaper rash causes mild redness and scaling where the diaper touches your baby's skin. In severe cases, the rash can cause pimples, blisters and other sores on the buttocks, thighs or genital area of ​​your baby. If the rash becomes infected, it may become bright red and the skin may swell. The spots or small reddish spots may spread beyond the main part of the rash, even outside the diaper area.

Call your doctor if:

  • Diaper rash occurs in the first 6 weeks of life.
  • They form small pimples and sores.
  • Your baby has a fever.
  • Your baby loses weight or not eating as well as usual.
  • There are major bumps or nodules.
  • The rash spreads to other areas such as arms, face or scalp.
  • The rash does not improve after trying the tips on how to treat diaper rash for 1 week.

Tips for preventing and treating diaper rash

  • Check your baby's diaper often and change it when wet or soiled.
  • Gently wipe your baby's bottom between diaper changes. Use warm (not hot) with a very mild soap or not.
  • Let your baby's skin dry completely before putting on another diaper.
  • Avoid baby wipes and scented soaps. Alcohol or fragrance can further irritate the skin.
  • Use products that contain zinc oxide ointment (such as Desitin ointment) or petroleum jelly (Vaseline as the brand) to protect your baby's skin from moisture.
  • Avoid using rubber pants or diapers with plastic edges.
  • After bathing, give your baby slaps on the buttocks with a towel to dry instead of rubbing. Rubbing can irritate sensitive skin of your baby.
  • If diaper rash persists, change the type of wipes, diapers or soap you are using.

If these changes do not work, talk to your doctor.

What is the proteinuria? 

Proteinuria is when protein goes in the urine. As the blood moves through the kidneys, the kidneys filter and remove waste products, excess fluids and salt. These waste products leave the body in the urine. Usually, no protein is found in urine as most proteins are too large to pass through the kidneys.

If your doctor finds protein in the urine of your child, this means that your child's kidneys may not be working as they should, possibly because of inflammation (swelling). Sometimes infection or chemicals damage the kidneys and this makes protein show up in urine.

If only a small amount of protein in the urine, your child probably has a benign (harmless) as orthostatic proteinuria (see below).If there is a lot of protein in the urine of your child a more serious kidney disease could be causing the problem.Proteinuria is painless. But when a large amount of protein present in urine protein level in the blood may drop. This can cause swelling of the eyelids, ankles and legs of your child. High blood pressure is another sign of this problem.

What are the symptoms of proteinuria?

Your doctor may ask you to collect a urine sample from your child 24 hours. The instructions for doing this at the end of this pamphlet. A collection of 24-hour urine allows your doctor to measure the protein in the urine. A special paper strip is dipped into the urine sample for the presence of protein in the urine.This test helps show how well your kidneys are working for your child. Your doctor may also do some blood tests.

What is orthostatic proteinuria?

Orthostatic proteinuria occurs in some older children and adolescents. The word orthostatic means "upright". The condition is known as "orthostatic proteinuria" because protein goes into the urine only when the child is standing.

Children with this condition have no kidney damage, but for some unknown reason, they lose protein into the urine during the day when active. At night, while they sleep, their kidneys do not let any protein into the urine. Your doctor diagnoses this harmless condition by checking two urine samples. The first is collected in the morning, right after your child gets up. The second sample is collected during the day. The samples were kept in separate containers. If your child has orthostatic proteinuria morning sample will not have protein, but the urine collected during the day will have protein in it.


How is proteinuria treated? 

If your child has orthostatic proteinuria or only small amounts of protein in the urine, no treatment is needed. Sometimes the doctor will check your child's urine in a couple of months to see if the amount of protein in the urine goes down. If the amount of protein in the urine does not change or there is more protein, your doctor may refer your child to a kidney specialist called a nephrologist. The nephrologist may perform a renal biopsy: a small piece of kidney tissue is removed with a needle and examined under a microscope. When your doctor determine what is causing the protein in the urine of his child, he can treat the problem.

There are a few simple things that can help your child regardless of what caused the kidney problem. Eating less salt can reduce the swelling. Medicine can control inflammation (swelling) of the kidneys that may be causing the protein to get into the urine. The medicine is usually given in a high dose at first and then a lower dose. Some children take a low dose of the drug for months or even years. It is important to follow your doctor's instructions about taking medication. It is also important to see your doctor for regular checkups.

Do I need to limit the activities of my child?

No. Although the protein in the urine may increase during exercise, this will not damage your child's kidneys. So that you do not need to limit your child's activities.

How do I collect urine for 24 hours?

In children who are trained to use the toilet you should start the collection on a day when your child does not go to school, usually on Sunday. As soon as your child gets up in the morning, have him or her urinate into the toilet. This urine is not saved, just flush it down the toilet. Write down the exact time at which your child urinates. Children who are not trained to use the toilet usually go to the hospital for this test.

After that, each time your child needs to urinate, have him or her to do it in a special container that the doctor or the lab gives you. For girls, first collect the urine in the urine collection bag (urine "hat") and then pour it into the special container. You do not need to dial the number of times that these urine samples are collected. Be sure to wash hands after handling the container.

It is important to collect all the urine your child produces all day and all night. The next morning, wake your child up at the same time as you did yesterday. Have your child urinate into the container one last time. This ends the collection of 24 hours.Now, enter the date and time the container label. Bring the container to the lab that day.

Since bacteria can multiply in the urine at room temperature, it is important to keep urine collection refrigerated during and after delivery to the laboratory.