Mother & Child

Mother and child, Pre and post birth depression

Young mothers have many concerns, money, food for the baby, babysitting and other things, but the real problem is the feeling that everything must be perfect. Many researches and inquiries have been made about mothers and the results are very interesting. 12% of the mothers worry about money, 22% thinks that they are not ready to be mothers and 21% say they lack confidence and need some emotional and practical support.

43% of the depressed mothers don`t want to go out from their homes, 22% have suicidal thoughts and 30% suffer from these symptoms more than 18 months. An inquiry made in Great Britain from more corporations say that mothers don`t want to share their problems with no one.

Sally Russell, finder of Netmums Corporation says:

Depression during pregnancy or after can be horrible for the mother, but this affects the whole family not only mothers. The illness steals the emotions and the happiness in the family in time when everybody needs to be happy.

Jane Brewin, Director of a charity child organization called Tommy`s say.

Pregnancy and maternity are things that change people’s life and beside all new physical changes and new responsibilities, many women are scared that they might do something wrong or they will never be good mothers.

Pregnancy is considered as a period of happiness and this fact makes women to feel great pressure and makes them concerned and depressed. Mental health problems during pregnancy have very bad consequences over the baby and the mother, that is why we need to create healthy environment and health system where women can show they feelings and emotions and get the appropriate support and help for their needs.

Going on a summer vacation with your children can be unpleasant experience, if you are not prepared for it. Going on a trip in a completely new place for your child can be wonderful experience, but it can also be a frightening one. So be sure to prepare your child for what will follow in the next days. Children ,especially if not disciplined well, tend to do things they should not do, they are always eager to explore the surrounding, so when on vacation you should be more alerted than home, because your home is much safer than elsewhere.


When going on a summer vacation, you should be sure that the food and the liquids consumed by your child and the whole family are safe from bacteria or virus. So be sure to wash and clean them good and prepare then in proper way. If eating in restaurants or hotels always choose food for your children that you suspect with least chance of bacterial presence.  Traveler’s diarrhea is one of the greatest factors for ruining your vacation. It happens because the children metabolism has not yet been exposed to the bacteria or virus that might be in the water or foods. The bacteria does not necessary need to be dangerous, locals consume it every day so their organism is accustomed to it.

Best way to avoid Traveler’s diarrhea is to eat more fruits, especially fruits that need be peeled, drink only bottled water, buy drinks that you are sure are made with purified water, do not swallow water while you are having a shower, brush teeth with bottled water, avoid dairy products on your vacation, avoid street food are any other food, whose quality you suspect. As long as you avoid possible sources of bacteria, you can prevent Traveler’s diarrhea, for you and your children.

Is a planned incision on the perineum (tissue between the vagina opening and the anus) and posterior vagina wall given under local anesthesia during second stage of labor, to help deliver a baby.



Reasons for an episiotomy:

1. Birth is imminent and the perineum has not stretched fully.

2. Baby's head is too big to pass through the vagina opening.

3. Baby is in abnormal position.

4. Baby is in distress and needs to be delivered quickly.

5. During assisted forceps delivery or vacuum extraction.

6. Mother is too tired to push.

How is episiotomy performed;

In-case of an epidural, there will be no need for anesthetics ,but if not local anesthetics also called pudendal block is administered.

An incision is made straight from the vaginal opening down towards the anus and its called midline episiotomy

Another type, is an incision, made from the vagina opening, and angled to the side to avoid the anus and is called mediolateral.

Complications of episiotomy;

- Infection; from poor hygiene.

- Bleeding; from breakdown of sutures or poorly sutured wound.

- Extended healing time.

- Scarring.

- Problems with intercourse.

- Swelling

How to prevent the need for episiotomy.

1. Good nutrition; a healthy skin, stretches easily.

2. Avoid lying on the back while pushing.

3. Exercise pelvic floor muscles during pregnancy.

4. Use perineal massage techniques.

Wound care;

Sit bath; put warm water in a bowel that fits into the toilet sit, add few drops of disinfectants then sit over the bowl and let the stem heat the incision site. It reliefs pain, swelling, bruising. Do this at least twice daily.


During pregnancy your body goes through a lot of changes, this changes could be pleasant, or unpleasant. The unpleasant changes, are know as the minor disorders in pregnancy, they range from nausea and vomiting to hemorrhoids.

These disorders varies from woman to woman, and they could last from few, days to week, months or even last throughout the pregnancy period, and are usually resolved once the body goes back to it is normal physiological state.

There are some of the disorders

1. Backache and pelvic pain; towards the end of pregnancy the levels of the hormone relaxing, increases this hormone acts on the ligaments around the back and pelvic area by stretching and softening them in readiness for labor, and this causes a lot of discomfort and pain.


2. Heartburn and indigestion; heartburn is a burning sensation felt at the back of the throat and in the stomach after eating, it occurs as a result of the pressure of the growing uterus on the stomach, (pressing it on the diaphragm). It results in opening of the valve between the stomach and esophagus, and consequent acid reflux which causes the burning sensation.

Indigestion occurs as a result of decreased peristaltic movement caused the relaxation of the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract under the influence of progesterone.

3. Leg cramp; during pregnancy the baby gets all nutrients salt and water they need from the mother, some times due to increased lactic acid as a result of muscle tiredness in cases where the mother does not replace the nutrients passed from her body to the baby she feels sharp pains on the leg and calf area like a muscle pull, especially at night.

4. Skin irritation; this occurs as a result of increased blood supply to the skin, it causes mothers to have an itching irritation, on the skin and also on the abdomen because of the stria


What is IUGR?

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a term that describes a baby who is not growing at a normal rate inside the uterus. Usually, these babies have a low birth weight.

What health problems causes IUGR?

Babies with IUGR are more likely to have certain health problems (both during pregnancy and after birth). The problems include:

Difficulty managing the stress of a vaginal delivery.
An increased risk of stillbirth.
Low blood sugar at birth.
Reduced resistance to infection.
Problems maintaining body temperature.
A count abnormally high red cell.
Will my baby, when I grow up, normal height?
Chances are your baby reaches a size and normal height when it is about two years.

What is the cause of IUGR?

The IUGR has various causes. The most common cause is a problem with the placenta (the tissue that carries oxygen and blood to the baby food). Birth defects and genetic disorders can also cause IUGR. If the mother has an infection, high blood pressure, a kidney disease, heart disease or sickle cell anemia, or if you are smoking, drinking alcohol or using drugs, your baby may develop IUGR. Sometimes a prescription drug you are taking the mother can cause IUGR.






Currently, one in three American children is obese or overweight. While these are data from a particular country, it is a fact that obesity in children is increasingly common in any part of the globe.

This is like so many other situations that could be avoided with a little information because only few people knows that obesity can be prevented. In fact, it is much easier to prevent than to treat.

The risk of becoming obese in children begins even before birth setting some parameters to be repeated during childhood and are likely to lead to overweight.

Nearly half of American women who are experiencing pregnancy are overweight or obese it increases the chances of the baby being born too small or too large which influences the development of child obesity.

Moreover, the amount of weight the mother gains during pregnancy influences the weight that the child will get later.

According to a study by the University of Pennsylvania, the chances of being overweight at age 7 were 48% higher in those children of mothers who had gained more kilos than recommended during pregnancy.

The weight of the mother before and during pregnancy has a direct influence on the weight that the child be getting on his lifetime.

A good tip is to seize the early years of the baby and be aware of how much weight the baby gains every year. Also,see if it matches the weight of your child with the recommended rates. This is a way to prevent the child to be an obese adult.

During the first year of life and during pregnancy, children and mothers go to the doctor in regular basis so this is an excellent opportunity to study on how to control the weight of your child.




At what point should I raise a weight loss program for my child?

If you have concerns about your child's weight, talk to your family doctor. Do not make your child eat a diet to lose weight without telling your doctor. Children need certain amounts of calories and nutrients to grow, learn and develop.

What can I do to help my child with weight problems?

Healthy habits such as proper nutrition and physical activity can help prevent or correct the problems of weight and protect one against the health and social problems that come with being overweight or obesity.

Here are some ideas:

- Keep snacks in your home ready, such as fruits (apples and bananas, for example) and raw vegetables (carrots and celery bits, for example). Keep unhealthy foods out of your home.

- In the prepared foods, include proteins with low-fat, vegetables and whole grains.

- Avoid foods in fast food restaurants.

- Choose the healthiest options available when eating at fast food restaurants or table service.

-Limit time spent in watching television, playing computer or game console to no more than two (2) hours per day.

- Encourage your child to be active. Try to play actively for one (1) hour per day.

- Encourage your child to engage in physical activities that you like very much. Some children enjoy team activities or group while others enjoy the activities that they can do alone.

- Include physical activity in daily life and plann active family outings.

- Be a good role model. Do what you say, eat healthy and exercise.

For best results, all nutrition program and activities should involve the whole family, not just the child with weight problems. Try not to think about the changes you make as a "diet" or "programs" are temporary. Instead, think of it as a permanent plan for improving the health of the whole family.

Keeping your bundle of joy safe is the most essential thing for a parent. It is important to be always vigilant for the safety of your child. We will provide you some tips on how to put an extra care for your baby.
  • Put your baby in a car seat and buckle the belt before you start the car. Keep the seat rear facing until the baby is a year old and weighs at least 20 pounds. The back seat is the safest place for babies and children.
  • Stay with your baby when you are playing in the water or close to it. Never leave your baby alone in the tub or pool. Babies can drown in just a few inches of water.
  • Keep your baby away from things that can burn. Do not eat, drink, smoke or carry anything hot while carrying the baby.
  • Prepare healthy foods. Avoid too much sweetened, salty or fatty food.
  • Lock up guns, alcohol, drugs and chemicals such as cleaning products. They can do much harm to the baby.
  • Be aware of choking hazards like small candies, coins, popcorn, grapes and nuts.
  • Put away knives, matches and other items that can hurt the baby. Put them in a place your exploring baby can not reach.
  • Never shake your baby.

Your baby wants to be with you. You are the person your baby knows and loves more than all others. He knows when you are not with him. This makes him fear that will not return. This distress is called "separation anxiety". Separation anxiety is an important part of growth.

Help your baby learn to separate from you. Try not to leave when your child is hungry, tired or sick. Ask the person who will care to stay with your baby and show him an interesting toy. Let the baby get used to the new person. Give your baby a comfort object, like a bear or a soft blanket. This can help bring comfort while you are away.

Although the baby cries loudly, you should not go in hiding. Tell your baby what will happen while you are away. Tell your child when you will return. Say for example, "I need to go now. Aunt Mary is going to play with you and feed you. I'll be back before you sleep. I love you". Give baby a kiss and leave. They will soon cease to mourn, and learn that you always come back over time.

What should I know about the emotional health of my teen?

The teenage years of your child can be a difficult period. Teens may feel overwhelmed by the emotional and physical changes they are going through. At the same time, teens may be facing many pressures: by being accepted by friends, parents and other adults to do well in school, or activities such as sports or part-time jobs.

The teen years are a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. Teens usually have a conflict to be dependent on their parents even though they feel a great desire to be independent. They can experiment with new values, ideas, hairstyles and clothing styles as they try to define who they are. Although this may be uncomfortable for parents, this is a normal part of being a teenager.

What can I do to help my teen?

Communicating your love to your child is the most important thing you can do. Children decide how they feel about themselves largely by how their parents react to them. For this reason, it is important for parents to help children to make them feel good about themselves. It is also important to communicate your values ​​and set expectations and limits, for example insist on honesty, self-control and respect for others while allowing teenagers to have their own space.

Parents of adolescents often only notice the problems and they may get in the habit of giving mostly negative feedback and criticism. Although teens need feedback information, they respond best when the reaction is positive. Praising appropriate behavior can help your teen to feel the satisfaction of achievement.

What warning signs should I watch?

Teens, especially those with low self-esteem or family problems are at high risk of a number of self-destructive behaviors such as using drugs or alcohol or having sex without protection. Depression and eating disorders are significant problems in adolescents. The following may be warning signs that your child has a problem:

  • Agitated or restless behavior
  • Weight gain or loss
  • A drop in grades
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Ongoing feelings of sadness
  • Not caring about people and things
  • Lack of motivation
  • Fatigue, loss of energy and lack of interest in activities
  • Low self-esteem
  • Difficulty sleeping